The genus Echinochloa in Iraq has been morphologically and anatomically studied . Morphological feature of stems, leaves, inflorescences , spikelets , glumes, lemmas and paleas,lodicules and grains were studied and the taxonomic importance of each character and it’s variation was discussed .
Anatomical characters seen in epidermises of the stems, leaves , reproductive parts , transverse section of the stems and leaves have been studied for the first time. Most anatomical characters were proved to be of diagnostic value. Figures and plates for all vegetative, reproductive organs epidermis and sections were prepared for all species.In conclusion two species and three varieties were recognized for Iraq .
A taxonomic Key was erected for distinguishing the species and varieties from each other along with rest of taxonomic treatment .