Study of fungal community was carried out in three locations of Kerbala Governorate . Each location included deserts & farmlands soils . The locations were Hay Alnaser , Kerbala – Najaf route & Alkhairat . Czapex and PDA were used for growing fungi , adopting the dilution method . Fungi were inoculated with 28 ºC . Thirty two species of fungi were isolated and identified belonging to 14 genera in addition to the white sterilized mycelium . Deuteromycetes were the dominant during this study where 28 species were isolated belonging to 10 genera followed by Zygomycetes represented by 3 species belonging to 3 genera and Ascomycelis represnted by one species .
Concerning some ecological factors ( temperature , humidity and PH ) of the soil , results revealed that , isolates number was highly correlated with the temperature and the humidity . Enzymatic activity of all isolated fungi was tested in terms of producing cellulase and protease. It was found that , all isolated fungi had the ability to produce cellulase enzyme but in different degrees .
The following fungi Aspergillus candidus , A. clavatus , A. flavus , penicillium frequntans , Paecilomyces sp., A. terreus, A. funmigatus , A. nevius , A. niger , , A. penicilliods , , , P. restrictum , P. verrucosum , Trichoderma lignorum , T. sp.
were very active , whereas , Absidia sp. , Alternaria citri , Cephalosporium acremonium , Cladosporium herbarum , Cunninghamella echinululata , Drechslera halodes , Fusarium sp. , Phoma glomerata weak activity ,were inactive . Other studied species came in between .
Only 16 fungal species were able to produce protease enzyme Aspergillus candidus , A. clavatus , A. niger , A. penicilliods , A. terreus , Penicillium sp. , were very active in producing protease enzyme whereas the following fungi species Aspergillus fumigatus , A. restrictus , A. ustus, Penicillium echinulatum , P. restrictum , were moderately active . On the other hand , the following fungi species ( Aspergillus flavus , Cunninghamella echinulata , Paecilomyces sp. , Penicillium paxilli , P. verrucosum) were weak in producing this enzyme .Other remained studied species failed to produce the protease enzyme .
Fourteen fungal species which are very active in producing cellulase were selected , and their efficiency was tested in decomposing corn waste .
Results showed that , Penicillium verrucosum was the most
efficient fungus in decomposing and producing CMCase and FPase , giving 18.2 and 0.84 unit / ml respectively .
Some factors effects were tested which influancing the productivity of cellulase by Penicillium verrocosum. It was found that 5 gm of corn waste for each 100 ml , fungus amount of 15 mm in diameter , temperature of 45ºC , with a pH of 5 were considered as the best conditions . Results also showed that , the time needed for this process was 5 days .
Six species of fungi (very active in producing protease enzyme) were selected and their efficiency were tested in decomposing (dialysed whey ) . The results showed that Aspergillus niger was the most efficient fungus in decomposing and producing protease its efficiency was (20.61) unit / ml . The optimum conditions for protease production from Aspergillus niger . were (40%) dialysed whey concentration , 15 mm fungus diameter , a temperature of 35 ºC , a pH of 7 and a time of 4 days .