Place in the Poetry of Al-Taf of the Second Century after Hijrah
This study focuses on the significance of place for the great importance it has in poetry, it contributes in revealing the text beauty as the text is the pot in which the poet pours the details of his poem. Thus, the poet’s attitude to place differs from that of the other people as his emotions and spirit tie him to the land on which he lives.
It was my supervisor, Assistant Professor Abdul- Ameer Al-Saeidi, who suggested choosing the subject of place in the poetry of Al-Taf of the second century after Hijrah. Consultation of experts, including Dr. Hana’a Abdul-Sada, saw avoiding studying the subject independently, so I studied it for the purpose of accomplishing the M.A. degree in Arabic literature. It also was my desire to study this subject and what relates to it pertaining Imam Hussein’s Revolution.
The major sources consulted in this thesis include (Poets Divans, The Husseini Encyclopedia-The Second Century Divan, The Literature of Al-Taf, and more). Other studies which tackled the theme of place were beneficial; such as The City in Modern Arabic Poetry by Dr. Mukhtar Ali Abo Ghalib, Time and Place and their significance in the life of Pre-Islamic Poets and Poetry by Salah Abdul-Hafidh,and academic thesis like Place in Pre-Islamic Arabic Poetry by Heidar Lazim Metlig, Place and its Significance in Iraqi Novel by Rahim Ali Juma’a Al-Harbi, and place in the poetry of Al- Shareef Al-Radhi by Zeinab Abdul- Hussein Al-Khafaji and other theses. A number of Periodicals and researches were also consulted like: The Dialectics of place in the poetry of Abi- Nu’as –An analytical study- by Sheima’ Jassim Khudher, and The Theory of place in the Philosophy of Al-Hassan Ibn Al-Heitham by Ne’ma Muhammed Ibraheem, and more.
The research includes a preface, four chapter and an appendix for presenting the poets, these sections are preceded by an introduction and followed by a conclusion.
The preface includes a linguistic and philosophic definition of place and the ancient Arab poet’s stand point from place, followed by the poetry of Al-Taf and the experience of place.
Chapter one discusses the natural place, it is divided into two sections, section one tackles the Earthly place (Al-Taf Land, river, desert, mountains, rocks, and plateaus). While section two deals with Heavenly place (the sky, clouds, thunder, the sun, stars, and plants).
Chapter two tackles Artificial Place, this is divided into two sections: section one includes the Religious Place which includes
While section two represents the urban place like the house, city and market.
Chapter three includes the dialectics of place these include: the realistic and the imaginary places, friendly and unfriendly places, the open and the closed place, the stationary and the movable place.
Chapter four includes the artistic study; it is divided into three sections; the first section includes the poetic language, this has two points (vocabulary Islamic vocabulary, ancient poetic heritage vocabulary, nature vocabulary. The second point deals with structures which include: inversion, apostrophe, questioning, and imperatives.
Whilesection two studies imagery; this includes simile, metaphor, metonymy, and other types of imagery like sensory imagery (which includes: visionary image, auditory image, and kinesthetic image).
Section three studies poetic rhythm, it has two points; the first point deals with the external rhythm and its definition; this includes meters and rhyme. The second includes internal rhythm which includes: repetition, consonance, and assonance.
This is followed by an appendix that includes the names of the poets mentioned in this research. Then comes the conclusion the summarizes the most important results of the study.
The reader notices that there is discrepancy among the thesis chapters and sections, this is due to the available material pertaining Al-Taf poetry.
The study of the place in the poetry of this era has obstacles as it require great efforts, as most of these verses where not gathered in one single volume, thus it was inevitable to search in books of variant nature like books of history, religion, biographies and others. What has complicated the matter is the fact that most of the authors of these verses were not known as poets, however, they were influenced by the Taf tragedy and they vented their emotions in the form of short poems and fragments.
Researcher: Luma Salam Al-Fatlawi