Since long time, man interested in history whether by a scientific knowledge or be a desire to save his remarkable deeds and glorifying forefathers. This is to express his affiliation to his society and living land. Interest in saving history varies according to variety of cultures and their people, for each civilization has its own history. Arabs were the first who interested in saving their religious and cultural heritage. And in spite of the modest historical material of Arab history before the prophet mission that reached us; it is in fact a history that needs a lot of thorough examination and purification particularly in what concern with the religious side for most of its sources came through poetry, legends, folklores, and from some old Testament books.
The prophet mission had great influence on development of history science for Arabs because of entrance of Arabic history into new era of documentation dew to the news that came through Holy Quran about previous nations. This is in addition to appearance of prophet Mohammed ( p.b.u.h.)as an Arabic personality that made a change in Arab peninsula and neighboring communities. This directed historians towards Arabic and Islamic history that started since descending of inspiration.
This interest did not prevent fabricators to insert their lies to Islamic history particularly the prophet biography exploiting authority’s prevention for writing down from one side and for the political conflict from the other side. Thus, the land was fertile and there was enough space to plant many lies in theprophet’s( p.b.u.h.)biography. Despite of severity and verification means that muslim scholars in accepting or refusing narration, fabricators exploited transferring and narrating rules and source refusal to insert their subjects. Therefore, the source was a means to pass the faults and detestable narrations.
Accordingly, there was a reason for a study deals with the source and narration and their influence on the historical fabrication process. This is what mentioned by Prof. Dr. Ayad Al kheffaji. He chose the prophet’s biography to be his study, and in particular the Meccan period of the prophet life for its importance in the Islamic history. In addition, it was a very fertile land for fabricators because most of its events were not documented that makes easy for them to add whatever sources they want to the weak narrations.
Our work in the dissertation was to discover whatever relates to the prophet’s biography when he was in Mecca, starting from his birthday to his immigration to Medina, then studying sources and bodies narrations. For each narration had its own privacy that differs from others. There was the weak narrations whether by its source or body. Others had no source. Thus, there was necessity to criticize the text by comparing it with other historical tests one time and submitting it to the mind and logic on the doctrine criteria.